Facial feminization

Facial feminization surgery (FFS) is a set of cosmetic surgical procedures that alter typically male facial features to bring them closer in shape and size to typical female facial features. FFS can include various bony and soft tissue procedures such as brow lift, rhinoplasty, cheek implantation, and lip augmentation.

Faces contain secondary sex characteristics that make male and female faces readily distinguishable, including the shape of the forehead, nose, lips, cheeks, chin, and jawline; the features in the upper third of the face seem to be the most important, but subtle changes in the lips can have a strong effect.

Candidates

For many transgender women, FFS is medically necessary to treat gender dysphoria, that helping trans women integrate socially as women.

While most FFS patients are transgender women, some cisgender women who feel that their faces are too masculine will also undergo FFS. FFS is occasionally sought by cross-dressers and drag queens.

Surgical procedures -Upper third of face

Some studies have shown that the shape of the forehead is one of the key differences between males and females. Hairline correction, forehead recontouring, eye socket recontouring, and brow lift are procedures are often performed at the same time, with rhinoplasty in mind.

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